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The terminal sends this data and requests a cryptogram using the generate application cryptogram command. Transactions go online when an ARQC has been requested.
The ARQC is sent in the authorisation message. The card generates the ARQC. Its format depends on the card application. The ARQC created by the card application is a digital signature of the transaction details, which the card issuer can check in real time.
This provides a strong cryptographic check that the card is genuine. The issuer responds to an authorisation request with a response code accepting or declining the transaction , an authorisation response cryptogram ARPC and optionally an issuer script a string of commands to be sent to the card.
Even if for any reason the terminal could not go online e. The card application may then reset offline usage limits.
If a card issuer wants to update a card post issuance it can send commands to the card using issuer script processing. Issuer scripts are encrypted between the card and the issuer, so are meaningless to the terminal.
Issuer script can be used to block cards, or change card parameters. The first version of EMV standard was published in Recognition of compliance with the EMV standard i.
EMV Compliance testing has two levels: EMV Level 1, which covers physical, electrical and transport level interfaces, and EMV Level 2, which covers payment application selection and credit financial transaction processing.
This was upgraded to EMV 3. This was further amended to version 4. In addition to the track-two data on the magnetic stripe, EMV cards generally have identical data encoded on the chip, which is read as part of the normal EMV transaction process.
If an EMV reader is compromised to the extent that the conversation between the card and the terminal is intercepted, then the attacker may be able to recover both the track-two data and the PIN, allowing construction of a magnetic stripe card, which, while not usable in a Chip and PIN terminal, can be used, for example, in terminal devices that permit fallback to magstripe processing for foreign customers without chip cards, and defective cards.
This attack is possible only where a the offline PIN is presented in plaintext by the PIN entry device to the card, where b magstripe fallback is permitted by the card issuer and c where geographic and behavioural checking may not be carried out by the card issuer.
In October it was reported that hundreds of EMV card readers for use in Britain, Ireland, the Netherlands, Denmark, and Belgium had been expertly tampered with in China during or shortly after manufacture.
For 9 months details and PINs of credit and debit cards were sent over mobile phone networks to criminals in Lahore , Pakistan. Tens of millions of pounds sterling are believed to have been stolen.
Cambridge University researchers Steven Murdoch and Saar Drimer demonstrated in a February BBC Newsnight programme one example attack, to illustrate that Chip and PIN is not secure enough to justify passing the liability to prove fraud from the banks onto customers.
APACS, the UK payments association, disagreed with the majority of the report, saying "The types of attack on PIN entry devices detailed in this report are difficult to undertake and not currently economically viable for a fraudster to carry out.
The fraud reported in October to have operated for 9 months see above was probably in operation at the time, but was not discovered for many months.
In August , NCR payment technology company computer security researchers showed how credit card thieves can rewrite the code of a magnetic strip to make it appear like a chipless card, which allows for counterfeiting.
Any four digits are typed in and accepted as a valid PIN. A member of the research team said, "Even small-scale criminal systems have better equipment than we have.
The amount of technical sophistication needed to carry out this attack is really quite low. We dispute the assertion by the banking industry that criminals are not sophisticated enough, because they have already demonstrated a far higher level of skill than is necessary for this attack in their miniaturized PIN entry device skimmers.
EMVCo disagreed and published a response saying that, while such an attack might be theoretically possible, it would be extremely difficult and expensive to carry out successfully, that current compensating controls are likely to detect or limit the fraud, and that the possible financial gain from the attack is minimal while the risk of a declined transaction or exposure of the fraudster is significant.
When approached for comment, several banks Co-operative Bank, Barclays and HSBC each said that this was an industry-wide issue, and referred the Newsnight  team to the banking trade association for further comment.
Because submission of the PIN is suppressed, this is the exact equivalent of a merchant performing a PIN bypass transaction. As a result of this, the transaction ARQC must be submitted online to the issuer, who knows that the ARQC was generated without a successful PIN submission since this information is included in the encrypted ARQC and hence would be likely to decline the transaction if it were for a high value, out of character, or otherwise outside of the typical risk management parameters set by the issuer.
Originally, bank customers had to prove that they had not been negligent with their PIN before getting redress, but UK regulations in force from 1 November placed the onus firmly on the banks to prove that a customer has been negligent in any dispute, with the customer given 13 months to make a claim.
The PIN harvesting can be performed with a chip skimmer. Normally, the card issuer is liable for fraudulent transactions. Chip and PIN systems can cause problems for travellers from countries that do not issue Chip and PIN cards as some retailers may refuse to accept their chipless cards.
Non-chip-and-PIN cards may also not work in some unattended vending machines at, for example, train stations, or self-service check-out tills at supermarkets.
Chip and PIN was trialled in Northampton , England from May ,  and as a result was rolled out nationwide in the United Kingdom on 14 February  with advertisements in the press and national television touting the "Safety in Numbers" slogan.
During the first stages of deployment, if a fraudulent magnetic swipe card transaction was deemed to have occurred, the retailer was refunded by the issuing bank, as was the case prior to the introduction of Chip and PIN.
On January 1, , the liability for such transactions was shifted to the retailer; this acted as an incentive for retailers to upgrade their point of sale PoS systems, and most major high-street chains upgraded on time for the EMV deadline.
Many smaller businesses were initially reluctant to upgrade their equipment, as it required a completely new PoS system—a significant investment.
New cards featuring both magnetic strips and chips are now issued by all major banks. The card issuer Switch lost a major contract with HBOS to Visa , as they were not ready to issue the new cards as early as the bank wanted.
The Chip and PIN implementation was criticised as designed to reduce the liability of banks in cases of claimed card fraud by requiring the customer to prove that they had acted "with reasonable care" to protect their PIN and card, rather than on the bank having to prove that the signature matched.
Until 1 November there was no such law protecting consumers from fraudulent use of their Chip and PIN transactions, only the voluntary Banking Code.
While this code stated that the burden of proof is on the bank to prove negligence or fraud rather than the cardholder having to prove innocence,  there were many reports that banks refused to reimburse victims of fraudulent card use, claiming that their systems could not fail under the circumstances reported, despite several documented successful large-scale attacks.
The Payment Services Regulations came into force on 1 November  and shifted the onus onto the banks to prove, rather than assume, that the cardholder is at fault.
After widespread identity theft due to weak security in the point-of-sale terminals at Target , Home Depot , and other major retailers, Visa, Mastercard and Discover  in March — and American Express  in June — announced their EMV migration plans for the United States.
Bank, and several credit unions. In , a number of companies began issuing pre-paid debit cards that incorporate Chip and PIN and allow Americans to load cash as euros or pound sterling.
Even merchants with EMV hardware may not be able to process chip transactions due to software or compliance deficiencies.
Industry experts, however, expect more standardization in the United States for software deployment and standards.
Visa and Mastercard have both implemented standards to speed up chip transactions with a goal of reducing the time for these to be under three seconds.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the amusement ride vehicle, see enhanced motion vehicle. How to prove yourself: Practical solutions to identification and signature problems.
Conference on the Theory and Application of Cryptographic Techniques. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Retrieved 10 May The UK Cards Association.
Archived from the original PDF on 19 September Retrieved 15 November Retrieved 2 January Retrieved September 20, Retrieved 17 April Retrieved 26 March University of Cambridge Computer Laboratory.
Retrieved 13 March Archived from the original on 15 April Retrieved 2 May Archived from the original on 5 July Computer Laboratory, University of Cambridge.
Archived from the original PDF on 8 May Retrieved 9 December Aperture Labs and Inverse Path. The New York Times. Retrieved May 10, Archived from the original PDF on 3 March Archived from the original on Archived from the original on 12 November Archived from the original on 30 July Archived from the original on 10 May Archived from the original on 29 September Retrieved 22 September Retrieved 6 February United Nations Federal Credit Union.
Archived from the original on 22 February Retrieved 4 December Archived from the original PDF on 5 July Credit , charge and debit cards.
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The supposed increased protection from fraud has allowed banks and credit card issuers to push through a "liability shift", such that merchants are now liable as of 1 January in the EU region and 1 October in the US for any fraud that results from transactions on systems that are not EMV-capable.
Although not the only possible method, the majority of implementations of EMV cards and terminals confirm the identity of the cardholder by requiring the entry of a personal identification number PIN rather than signing a paper receipt.
Whether or not PIN authentication takes place depends upon the capabilities of the terminal and programming of the card.
Under the previous system, a customer typically had to hand their card to a sales clerk to pay for a transaction.
When credit cards were first introduced, merchants used mechanical rather than magnetic portable card imprinters that required carbon paper to make an imprint.
The merchant had to verify transactions over a certain currency limit by telephoning the card issuer. During the s in the United States, many merchants subscribed to a regularly-updated list of stolen or otherwise invalid credit cards numbers.
This list was commonly printed in booklet form on newsprint, in numerical order, much like a slender phone book, yet without any data aside from the list of invalid numbers.
Checkout cashiers were expected to thumb through this booklet each and every time a credit card was presented for payment of any amount, prior to approving the transaction, which incurred a short delay.
Later, equipment electronically contacted the card issuer, using information from the magnetic stripe to verify the card and authorize the transaction.
This was much faster than before, but required the transaction to occur in a fixed location. Consequently, if the transaction did not take place near a terminal in a restaurant, for example the clerk or waiter had to take the card away from the customer and to the card machine.
It was easily possible at any time for a dishonest employee to swipe the card surreptitiously through a cheap machine that instantly recorded the information on the card and stripe; in fact, even at the terminal, a thief could bend down in front of the customer and swipe the card on a hidden reader.
This made illegal cloning of cards relatively easy, and a more common occurrence than before. Since the introduction of payment card Chip and PIN, however, cloning of the chip is not feasible; only the magnetic stripe can be copied, and a copied card cannot be used by itself on a terminal requiring a PIN.
The introduction of Chip and PIN coincided with wireless data transmission technology becoming inexpensive and widespread.
Thus, both chip-and-PIN and wireless technologies can be used to reduce the risks of unauthorized swiping and card cloning.
Rather than physically signing a receipt for identification purposes, the user just enters a personal identification number PIN , typically of 4 to 6 digits in length.
This number must correspond to the information stored on the chip. While EMV technology has helped reduce crime at the point of sale, fraudulent transactions have shifted to more vulnerable telephone , Internet , and mail order transactions — known in the industry as card-not-present or CNP transactions.
Using this protocol, data is exchanged in application protocol data units APDUs. This comprises sending a command to a card, the card processing it, and sending a response.
EMV uses the following commands:. An EMV transaction has the following steps: The intent of application selection was to let cards contain completely different applications—for example GSM and EMV.
However, EMV developers implemented application selection as a way of identifying the type of product, so that all product issuers Visa, Mastercard, etc.
The way application selection is prescribed in EMV is a frequent source of interoperability problems between cards and terminals. Book 1  of the EMV standard devotes 15 pages to describing the application selection process.
An application identifier AID is used to address an application in the card. This is followed by a proprietary application identifier extension PIX , which enables the application provider to differentiate among the different applications offered.
Eight West African countries: The terminal sends the get processing options command to the card. When issuing this command, the terminal supplies the card with any data elements requested by the card in the processing options data objects list PDOL.
The PDOL a list of tags and lengths of data elements is optionally provided by the card to the terminal during application selection. The card responds with the application interchange profile AIP , a list of functions to perform in processing the transaction.
The card also provides the application file locator AFL , a list of files and records that the terminal needs to read from the card. Smart cards store data in files.
These all must be read using the read record command. EMV does not specify which files data is stored in, so all the files must be read.
EMV defines tag values for all data used in card processing. The purpose of the processing restrictions is to see if the card should be used.
Three data elements read in the previous step are checked. If any of these checks fails, the card is not necessarily declined. This feature lets, for example, card issuers permit cardholders to keep using expired cards after their expiry date, but for all transactions with an expired card to be performed on-line.
Offline data authentication is a cryptographic check to validate the card using public-key cryptography. There are three different processes that can be undertaken depending on the card:.
Cardholder verification is used to evaluate whether the person presenting the card is the legitimate cardholder. The terminal uses a CVM list read from the card to determine the type of verification to perform.
Different terminals support different CVMs. Terminal risk management is only performed in devices where there is a decision to be made whether a transaction should be authorised on-line or offline.
If transactions are always carried out on-line e. Terminal risk management checks the transaction amount against an offline ceiling limit above which transactions should be processed on-line.
It is also possible to have a 1 in an online counter, and a check against a hot card list which is only necessary for off-line transactions.
If the result of any of these tests is positive, the terminal sets the appropriate bit in the terminal verification results TVR.
The results of previous processing steps are used to determine whether a transaction should be approved offline, sent online for authorization, or declined offline.
This is done using a combination of data objects known as terminal action codes TACs held in the terminal and issuer action codes IACs read from the card.
Both types of action code take the values Denial, Online, and Default. The TAC is set by the card acquirer; in practice card schemes advise the TAC settings that should be used for a particular terminal type depending on its capabilities.
The IAC is set by the card issuer; some card issuers may decide that expired cards should be rejected, by setting the appropriate bit in the Denial IAC.
Other issuers may want the transaction to proceed on-line so that they can in some cases allow these transactions to be carried out.
An online-only device such as an ATM always attempts to go on-line with the authorization request, unless declined off-line due to Issuer action codes —Denial settings.
This object is a list of tags that the card wants to be sent to it to make a decision on whether to approve or decline a transaction including transaction amount, but many other data objects too.
The terminal sends this data and requests a cryptogram using the generate application cryptogram command.
Transactions go online when an ARQC has been requested. Zie ons cookiebeleid voor instellingen en meer informatie over cookies.
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