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Support Package Stacks are released every 6 months. Text Analysis and Earth Observation Analysis. Column-oriented systems store all data for a single column in the same location, rather than storing all data for a single row in the same location row-oriented systems.
This can enable performance improvements for OLAP queries on large datasets and allows greater vertical compression of similar types of data in a single column.
If the read times for column-stored data is fast enough, consolidated views of the data can be performed on the fly , removing the need for maintaining aggregate views and its associated data redundancy.
The index server performs session management, authorization, transaction management and command processing.
The database has both a row store and a columnar store. Users can create tables using either store, but the columnar store has more capabilities and is most frequently used.
The XS engine allows web applications to be built. Modeling is the methodology to expose operational data to the end user. Reusable virtual objects named calculation views are used in the modelling process.
When an MVCC database needs to update an item of data, it will not overwrite the old data with new data, but will instead mark the old data as obsolete and add the newer version.
Data Virtualization is available via a tool named Smart Data Access. In a scale-out environment, HANA can support volumes of up to a petabyte of data in-memory while returning query results in under a second.
Vora leverages some of the same concepts from HANA, namely, in-memory storage, query pushdown, and massive parallelization.
The Business Function Library includes a number of algorithms made available to address common business data processing algorithms such as asset depreciation , rolling forecast and moving average.
HANA incorporates the open source statistical programming language R as a supported language within stored procedures. The column-store database offers graph database capabilities.
The graph engine supports the Cypher Query Language as well as a visual graph manipulation via a tool called Graph Viewer. Use cases for the Graph Engine include things like supply chain traceability, fraud detection, and logistics and route planning.
Although listed under the general heading of "panoramas" in the sales catalogues of the time, those films shot straight forward from in front of a railway engine were usually specifically referred to as " phantom rides ".
In , Robert W. This device had the camera mounted on a vertical axis that could be rotated by a worm gear driven by turning a crank handle, and Paul put it on general sale the next year.
Shots taken using such a "panning" head were also referred to as "panoramas" in the film catalogues of the first decade of the cinema.
This eventually led to the creation of a panoramic photo as well. This had a glass roof and three glass walls constructed after the model of large studios for still photography, and it was fitted with thin cotton cloths that could be stretched below the roof to diffuse the direct ray of the sun on sunny days.
The soft overall light without real shadows that this arrangement produced, and which also exists naturally on lightly overcast days, was to become the basis for film lighting in film studios for the next decade.
Cinematography can begin with digital image sensor or rolls of film. Advancements in film emulsion and grain structure provided a wide range of available film stocks.
The selection of a film stock is one of the first decisions made in preparing a typical film production. Aside from the film gauge selection — 8 mm amateur , 16 mm semi-professional , 35 mm professional and 65 mm epic photography, rarely used except in special event venues — the cinematographer has a selection of stocks in reversal which, when developed, create a positive image and negative formats along with a wide range of film speeds varying sensitivity to light from ISO 50 slow, least sensitive to light to very fast, extremely sensitive to light and differing response to color low saturation , high saturation and contrast varying levels between pure black no exposure and pure white complete overexposure.
Advancements and adjustments to nearly all gauges of film create the "super" formats wherein the area of the film used to capture a single frame of an image is expanded, although the physical gauge of the film remains the same.
The larger the film gauge, the higher the overall image resolution clarity and technical quality. The techniques used by the film laboratory to process the film stock can also offer a considerable variance in the image produced.
By controlling the temperature and varying the duration in which the film is soaked in the development chemicals, and by skipping certain chemical processes or partially skipping all of them , cinematographers can achieve very different looks from a single film stock in the laboratory.
Some techniques that can be used are push processing , bleach bypass , and cross processing. Most of modern cinema uses digital cinematography and has no film stocks [ citation needed ] , but the cameras themselves can be adjusted in ways that go far beyond the abilities of one particular film stock.
They can provide varying degrees of color sensitivity, image contrast, light sensitivity and so on. One camera can achieve all the various looks of different emulsions.
Filters , such as diffusion filters or color effect filters, are also widely used to enhance mood or dramatic effects.
Most photographic filters are made up of two pieces of optical glass glued together with some form of image or light manipulation material between the glass.
In the case of color filters, there is often a translucent color medium pressed between two planes of optical glass.
Color filters work by blocking out certain color wavelengths of light from reaching the film. With color film, this works very intuitively wherein a blue filter will cut down on the passage of red, orange, and yellow light and create a blue tint on the film.
In black-and-white photography, color filters are used somewhat counter intuitively; for instance a yellow filter, which cuts down on blue wavelengths of light, can be used to darken a daylight sky by eliminating blue light from hitting the film, thus greatly underexposing the mostly blue sky while not biasing most human flesh tone.
Certain cinematographers, such as Christopher Doyle , are well known for their innovative use of filters. Filters can be used in front of the lens or, in some cases, behind the lens for different effects.
Christopher Doyle was a pioneer for increased usage of filters in movies. He was highly respected throughout the cinema world.
Lenses can be attached to the camera to give a certain look, feel, or effect by focus, color, etc. As does the human eye , the camera creates perspective and spatial relations with the rest of the world.
Variation in focal length is one of the chief benefits. The focal length of the lens determines the angle of view and, therefore, the field of view.
Cinematographers can choose from a range of wide-angle lenses , "normal" lenses and long focus lenses , as well as macro lenses and other special effect lens systems such as borescope lenses.
Wide-angle lenses have short focal lengths and make spatial distances more obvious. A person in the distance is shown as much smaller while someone in the front will loom large.
On the other hand, long focus lenses reduce such exaggerations, depicting far-off objects as seemingly close together and flattening perspective.
The differences between the perspective rendering is actually not due to the focal length by itself, but by the distance between the subjects and the camera.
Therefore, the use of different focal lengths in combination with different camera to subject distances creates these different rendering.
A zoom lens allows a camera operator to change his focal length within a shot or quickly between setups for shots.
As prime lenses offer greater optical quality and are "faster" larger aperture openings, usable in less light than zoom lenses, they are often employed in professional cinematography over zoom lenses.
Certain scenes or even types of filmmaking, however, may require the use of zooms for speed or ease of use, as well as shots involving a zoom move.
As in other photography, the control of the exposed image is done in the lens with the control of the diaphragm aperture. The choice of the aperture also affects image quality aberrations and depth of field.
Focal length and diaphragm aperture affect the depth of field of a scene — that is, how much the background, mid-ground and foreground will be rendered in "acceptable focus" only one exact plane of the image is in precise focus on the film or video target.
Depth of field not to be confused with depth of focus is determined by the aperture size and the focal distance. A large or deep depth of field is generated with a very small iris aperture and focusing on a point in the distance, whereas a shallow depth of field will be achieved with a large open iris aperture and focusing closer to the lens.
Depth of field is also governed by the format size. If one considers the field of view and angle of view, the smaller the image is, the shorter the focal length should be, as to keep the same field of view.
Then, the smaller the image is, the more depth of field is obtained, for the same field of view. Therefore, 70mm has less depth of field than 35mm for a given field of view, 16mm more than 35mm, and early video cameras, as well as most modern consumer level video cameras, even more depth of field than 16mm.
In Citizen Kane , cinematographer Gregg Toland and director Orson Welles used tighter apertures to create every detail of the foreground and background of the sets in sharp focus.
This practice is known as deep focus. Deep focus became a popular cinematographic device from the s onwards in Hollywood. Today, the trend is for more shallow focus.
To change the plane of focus from one object or character to another within a shot is commonly known as a rack focus. Early in the transition to digital cinematography, the inability of digital video cameras to easily achieve shallow depth of field, due to their small image sensors, was initially an issue of frustration for film makers trying to emulate the look of 35mm film.
Optical adapters were devised which accomplished this by mounting a larger format lens which projected its image, at the size of the larger format, on a ground glass screen preserving the depth of field.
The adapter and lens then mounted on the small format video camera which in turn focused on the ground glass screen. Digital SLR still cameras have sensor sizes similar to that of the 35mm film frame, and thus are able to produce images with similar depth of field.
The advent of video functions in these cameras sparked a revolution in digital cinematography, with more and more film makers adopting still cameras for the purpose because of the film-like qualities of their images.
More recently, more and more dedicated video cameras are being equipped with larger sensors capable of 35mm film-like depth of field. The aspect ratio of an image is the ratio of its width to its height.
This can be expressed either as a ratio of 2 integers, such as 4: Different ratios provide different aesthetic effects. Standards for aspect ratio have varied significantly over time.
During the silent era, aspect ratios varied widely, from square 1: However, from the s, silent motion pictures generally settled on the ratio of 4: The introduction of sound-on-film briefly narrowed the aspect ratio, to allow room for a sound stripe.
In , a new standard was introduced, the Academy ratio of 1. For years, mainstream cinematographers were limited to using the Academy ratio, but in the s, thanks to the popularity of Cinerama , widescreen ratios were introduced in an effort to pull audiences back into the theater and away from their home television sets.
These new widescreen formats provided cinematographers a wider frame within which to compose their images. Many different proprietary photographic systems were invented and utilized in the s to create widescreen movies, but one dominated film: The first commonly used anamorphic format was CinemaScope , which used a 2.
Hayden of the Kennedy Foundation; Dr. Eunice Kennedy Shriver was honorary chair. At the July games, Shriver announced the formation of Special Olympics and that more games would be held every two years as a "Biennial International Special Olympics".
In , The U. Olympic Committee gave the Special Olympics official approval to use the name "Olympics". The Austrian president was the first head of state to personally open the games.
In , Healthy Athletes became an official Special Olympics initiative, offering health information and screenings to Special Olympics athletes worldwide.
Approximately 7, athletes from countries competed over 18 disciplines. The Dublin games were also the first to have their own opening and closing ceremonies broadcast live.
President of Ireland Mary McAleese performed the ceremonial duties. The games dramatically changed the perceptions and attitudes of international society regarding the abilities and limitations of people with intellectual disabilities.
The opening ceremony of the Games has been described by President McAleese as "a time when Ireland was at its superb best". On October 30, , President George W.
Teams from all 50 states and the District of Columbia participated. She is the first CEO from outside the U. The "stick figure" is an abstract but humanistic form designed to convey the impression of movement and activity.
The logo is a symbol of growth, confidence and joy among children and adults with disabilities who are learning coordination, mastering skills, participating in competitions and preparing themselves for richer, more productive lives.
In , the Chicago Park District erected the 30 foot 9. The sculpture by Richard Hunt stands in a plaza next to Soldier Field, where the first games were held 50 years earlier in Special Olympics programs are available for athletes free of charge.
People with intellectual disabilities are encouraged to join Special Olympics for the physical activity, which helps lower the rate of cardiovascular disease and obesity, among other health benefits.
Also, they gain many emotional and psychological benefits, including self-confidence, social competence, building greater athletic skills and higher self-esteem.
To qualify for the special olympics, a person must be at least 8 years old and identified by an agency or professional as having one of the following conditions: Children engage in games and activities that develop motor skills and hand-eye coordination.
Parents say their children in Young Athletes also develop better social skills. The confidence boost makes it easier for them to play and talk with other children on the playground and elsewhere.
Families can also get involved with the Special Olympics experience. Family members support their athletes to the best of their ability, which may involve attending or volunteering at the events.
Volunteers and supporters are an integral part of Special Olympics—and millions of people around the world are committed to its programs.
Some are sponsors or donors. Many others are coaches, event volunteers and fans. Coaches help the athletes be the best they can be regardless of ability—or disability.
Special Olympics trains coaches through the Coaching Excellence program, which includes partnering with sports organizations.
Special Olympics volunteers are introduced to lifetime friendships and great rewards. There are many events in which families and volunteers participate, but the biggest event is the Law Enforcement Torch Run , which involves police chiefs, police officers, secret service, FBI agents, military police, sheriffs, state troopers, prison guards, and other law enforcement personnel assembling to raise awareness and funds for Special Olympics.
Ahead of a Special Olympics competition, law enforcement officers carry the torch in intervals along a planned route covering most of the state or country to the site of the opening ceremonies of the chapter or Special Olympics World Summer or Winter Games.
Then they pass the torch to a Special Olympics athlete and together they run up to the cauldron and light it, signifying the beginning of the games.
But if I cannot win, let me be brave in the attempt. In , track and field, swimming and floor hockey were the first three official sports offered by Special Olympics.
As in the Olympics, events are introduced in training and then added to the competitive schedule, and from there the list of sports and events continued to grow.
Special Olympics has more than 30 Olympic-type individual and team sports that provide meaningful training and competition opportunities for people with intellectual disabilities.
As of , these are: Availability of sports can depend on location and season. A key difference between Special Olympics competitions and those of other sports organizations is that athletes of all ability levels are encouraged to participate.
Competitions are structured so that athletes compete with other athletes of similar ability in equitable divisions. The ability of an athlete or team is determined by an entry score from a prior competition or the result of a seeding round or preliminary event at the competition itself.
Other factors that are significant in establishing competitive divisions are age and gender. At competitions, medals are awarded to the first, second and third-place winners in each event, and ribbons are awarded to athletes who finish in fourth through eighth place.GRP's werden indiziert und als dimensionslose Zahl angegeben. Sie fing immer wieder an das was ich sagte zu wiederholen, aber es war ein erstauntes wiederholen. Ist das so ein Privat Telefonnummer oder sonst irgendwas? Was möchtest Du wissen? Was bedeutet dieses Nachgesagte? Nur Personen, die sich innerhalb dieses Korridors befinden werden dann als qualifizierte Kontakte gezählt. Je nach Kampagnenziel muss daher entschieden werden, welcher der beiden Werte der jeweils wertvollere ist: Ich muss noch dazu sagen, dass diese Person mich sehr anziehend fand. Das passiert wenn ich Nachrichten lese. Oft werden Werbekampagnen mit einer gewünschten Mindestanzahl an Durchschnittskontakten geplant, um die Werbebotschaft am Markt durchzusetzen.